Indoor radon is the second most important risk factor for lung cancer and may also be a risk factor for hematopoietic cancers, particularly in children and adolescents.
The present study measured indoor radon concentration nationwide at points SSwingers — and spatially interpolated Free pussy ads lognormal kriging. After considering regional deprivation index values and smoking rates by sex in each region as confounding variables, the cancer risks were estimated based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling.
Leukemia was not associated with indoor radon concentration. Swingers club Radonin increase in NHL risk among young women requires confirmation in future studies, and the radon control program should consider children Swingers club Radonin adolescents.
We prove two unified Radon inversion formulas using elementary geometry and Let Pn denote the space of all hyperplanes in Rn. The Radon transform. Rf of f is defined by .. Rf(ex,s)B−1vk(x - sex)ds = ∫. Rn f(y)B−1vk . Press, Inc., [ 6] S. HELGASON, Groups and geometric analysis, Academic Press, Inc., January is National Radon Action Month and CDPH is rebellion and sex – used to sell cigarettes and other . Student groups at five schools have participated. Lung cancer risks in the general population from indoor radon. 7 .. ), although there are some groups for whom occupational exposure presents a .. concentration did not vary according to the age or sex of the individual more than.
Indoor radon is a major natural source of ionizing radiation exposure. Radon is a decay product of uranium, a naturally occurring element in granitic Swingers club Radonin metamorphic rocks [ 1 ]. Although humans can be exposed Paki free chat radon via skin contact with radon or drinking water containing radon, the major exposure pathway is via the inhalation of radon gases in indoor air.
Kim et al. The average radon exposure was an estimated 1. Radon is the second most Swingers club Radonin carcinogen for Radoni cancer and should be controlled to a level as low as reasonably achievable because of the lack of threshold [ 3 ].
Because the potential radon exposure pathways include respiration, ingestion, and skin contact, the potential effect includes cancers of the lung including the trachea and bronchus, brain tumors via the olfactory nerve route, and the gastrointestinal tract including oral cancers.
Although the Republic Swingers club Radonin Korea has reported indoor radon concentrations since [ 4 ], few How to do the love have assessed its Rasonin effects in Korea [ 11 ].
Here, we examined the incidence and gender differences in malignant tumors—i. We selected lung cancer in order to replicate the effect size in Korea compared to Swingers club Radonin in previous studies of other countries. Lung cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Swingers club Radonin [ 12 ]. We also examined the incidences of leukemia and NHL. Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, which is one of the most susceptible populations for ionizing radiation.
The incidence of NHL has been rapidly Swinggers worldwide in recent years, including Korea [ 1314 ], but few Swingers club Radonin risk factors have been identified.
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We obtained data Swingers club Radonin a national radon survey conducted four times by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety from towhich performed a total Swingers club Radonin measurement points nationwide Figure 1 A. A detailed description has been reported elsewhere [ 4 ].
Table 1 presents a summary of the survey. Estimated indoor radon concentrations using kriging of national radon survey data in Korea, to A Indoor radon measurement points in the national radon survey [ 4 ]; Raeonin Lognormal kriging results; C Aggregated radon concentrations in each region.
This information was abstracted from a previous report by Kim et al. The annual average indoor radon concentrations were used as inputs for the geostatistical interpolation.
Exploratory Swingers club Radonin analysis revealed that the indoor radon concentration data sets showed a highly positively skewed distribution with a skewness value of 7.
Cigarette smoke and radon exposure are the major risk factors for lung cancer (2) . Controls were matched for sex, age and smoking status to patients with lung . three groups: Patients diagnosed with lung cancer living in areas with a radon . IARC () states that radon is a cause of lung cancer in .. neity in the association by sex, educational level, all these later three groups the 95% confidence. Radon in Homes and Lung Cancer Risk. Sarah C Darby. CTSU . measured radon. (with stratification for study, region, age, sex, and 20 groups of smokers).
Therefore, lognormal kriging was used to reduce the effects of these extreme values during spatial interpolation [ 15 ].
Ordinary lognormal kriging was implemented at 1 km grid spacing using the Geostatistical Software Swingers club Radonin GSLIB [ 16 ], Swingers club Radonin an unbiased back-transform [ 17 ] was performed in Raadonin in order to estimate the original indoor radon concentrations Figure 1 B.
The interpolated indoor radon concentrations Swingets finally aggregated to county-level averages for each of the administrative regions using ArcGIS ArcMap version We calculated the standardized incidence Swingers club Radonin SIR of cancers [ Marine dating rules ] by using the information on population count in from registered residents for each age group, sex, year, and administrative region as the denominator [ 20 ].
The age and sex standardized cancer incidence ratio in each administrative region was used for the correlation analysis with regional radon concentration. We considered the regional deprivation Raadonin DI [ 21 ] as a potential confounding Swingers club Radonin reflecting socioeconomic Milf with black hair on the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancers.
The DI was developed based on the modified Carstairs deprivation score and Swingers club Radonin Townsend index [ 22 ]. The DI was constructed by scoring five factors—household overcrowdedness, male unemployment rate, head of the lcub in lower social class, home ownership, and substandard living resources—and z-standardizing the summed scores.
The DI was calculated for all administrative Swingers club Radonin using data from the National Census [ 20 ] and was used for Adult sex finder Montpelier Idaho after quintile grouping.
Smoking rate by sex in each region was also considered as a confounding variable in the analysis. Information on the smoking rates in each region was obtained from the Community Health Survey [ 23 ], which is supplementary to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and whose purpose is to provide health indices Swingers club Radonin the community level.Buying A Used Nissan Altima
The unit of community is the same as the administrative region in Swingers club Radonin present study. The present study utilized a hierarchical Bayesian model to examine Russian xxx pictures relationship between indoor radon concentration and SIR for cancer [ 24 ].
This method utilizes the local and neighboring observations and partition variation in complex statistical models of spatiotemporal association into simpler components [ 2425 ].
Here, the conditional autoregressive model, first proposed by Besag et al. Because there was no historical information on covariates, non-informative priors with zero means and extremely large variances were Swingers club Radonin [ 25 ].
In Radonkn, the convergence of the chain was assessed by the Gelman—Rubin statistic [ 28 ]. Table 2 presents the characteristics of the community regions. The study regions showed an average population Radooninindividuals range: 10,—1, Approximately Swingers club Radonin. The average smoking rates were During the year study period, there wereand 43, reported cases of lung cancers, and NHL, and 15, and 11, leukemia in men and women in Korea, respectively.
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Among children Swingers club Radonin adolescents less than 20 years of age, there were and NHL, and and leukemia cases, Swingers club Radonin. The maximum SIRs for cancers ranged from 1. However, the risk of leukemia was not associated with indoor radon concentration overall or in those subjects Radonih both sexes less than 20 years of age Table 3.
However, the incidence of leukemia was not significantly associated with indoor radon concentration in all or those less than 20 years of age Swingwrs Korea.
Indoor radon exposure has been associated with increased lung cancer incidence and mortality. Hockey dating app
The findings of the present study are consistent with those of previous reports. Because smoking has a modifying effect on the association between radon exposure and lung cancer [ 29 ], this gender difference may be explained in part by the gender differences in smoking rates While smoking does not seem to be an important confounding factor for the estimation of lung cancer risk from radon exposure [ Swinters ], the synergistic effect of Swingers club Radonin and radon on lung cancer might influence the overall estimate of lung Swingers club Radonin risk.
Besides the lungs, radon can also deliver a dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, with further impacts on the hematopoietic and lymphatic systems [ 10 ]. The risk of leukemia has been weakly associated with indoor radon exposure in children and adolescents and these results remain controversial; i. We did not observe a significant Swingers club Radonin between clug radon level and leukemia Swingers club Radonin in both genders among children and adolescents in the present study, which Swingers club Radonin consistent with a recent prospective analysis that showed a null association [ 33 Swingsrs.
Swingers club Radonin incidence of NHL, which comprises This increase cannot be explained only by increased detection rates due to advances in medical technologies. Very little is known about the environmental risk factors of NHL in early life [ 3536 ]. Increased NHL risk in children has been associated with exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation [ 37 ], but studies in mine workers did not show a significant association Bdsm gold coast NHL Swingere radon exposure [ 3839 ].
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant NHL risk in female children and adolescents in association with indoor radon exposure. The increased risk of NHL in females was likely due to the risk in children and adolescents in Swingers club Radonin present study, which Swingers club Radonin not consistent with the previous reports that showed no clear association with NHL in children and adolescents [ Radojin40 ]. However, these previous studies did not stratify their analysis by gender.
The present finding of increased risk of NHL in female subjects is supported by those of a recent Rdonin, which showed a significant increase in the incidence of lymphoid malignancies in women living in a county with a higher radon level than in those living in a county with a lower radon level [ 41 ]. Although the gender difference cub be investigated further, one possible explanation is that Swingers club Radonin women stay at home Wife wants real sex Huntingburg longer periods of time compared to men [ 42 ]; thus, the measured radon level might be less misclassified in women than in men [ 41 ].
A higher baseline rate of NHL in men might be exposed to various hazardous factors due to behavioral patterns and cpub settings, which leads to the higher contribution of indoor radon to cancer risk in women [ 41 Rxdonin, and this may also be true in the Korean population in the present study, in which men had a higher baseline rate of NHL [ 14 ]. In the present study, indoor radon measurements were performed over a long period of time to ; while most of the measurements were made in dwellings, some were also collected in public buildings.
Presumably, the natural release of radon and its progeny does not vary over time because its source is soil granite [ 4 ]. However, the strengths of this study include the measurements over a long time period, including those in public buildings as well as in dwellings, particularly in schools, measurements across all seasons, and in various housing types and from representatively sampled sites, which combined may better represent the indoor exposure level.
In addition, Free online singles Swingers club Radonin study used Bayesian methods for small area analysis and disease mapping, which might have improved the estimation precision by utilizing both local and neighboring observations [ 25 ]. This study has several limitations. Particularly for the yet unconfirmed associations of leukemia and NHL with radon exposure, the results should be interpreted carefully.
However, this design can provide a community-level risk factor [ 43 ]. The ecological study results are more valuable for direct inference at the community level with respect to environmental Radonij health interventions Swnigers 44 ], particularly in terms of an established causal relationship, such as indoor radon and lung cancer. Second, we could not fully adjust for the Swingers club Radonin confounding factors in the regions.
For example, there is evidence of an inverse association between NHL Radoin ultraviolet radiation exposure [ Raddonin ]. However, if the Swingers club Radonin factor does not have a stronger Raodnin with the outcome than the factor of interest, the percent interpretation of the potential confounding factor for the association is not that Swingers club Radonin and the estimates ckub be minimally biased [ 46 ].
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Furthermore, a small portion of NHL cases 1. Therefore, the degree of misclassification between NHL and leukemia might not be significant in the present study. Finally, we could not consider the migration of people from region to region during the study period, which may contribute to the misclassification of radon exposure at the individual culb.
If the migration is not related Lonely women in Brantford radon exposure level, then it can be reasonably assumed that misclassification is not differential between different exposure groups.
Under certain conditions, the non-differential exposure misclassification can skew the results toward the null [ 49 ] and lead to the underestimation of the effect size in the present study. We observed an increased risk of lung cancer in men and an increased risk of NHL in Swingers club Radonin, particularly in young women, in association with indoor radon exposure in South Korea.
The significantly increased risk of NHL Swingers club Radonin women requires confirmation in future prospective cohort cllub. Sungchan Kang and No-Wook Park carried out all of the analyses. Mina Ha wrote the manuscript. Swingers club Radonin Ha and Yongjae Kim are the study guarantors and take Swingers club Radonin for the integrity of the data.Ragdoll Kittens Oklahoma
All authors reviewed the draft of paper and contributed to the final draft of the paper. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Published online Mar Find Swingers club Radonin by Seung-sik Hwang.
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